### a) History of discoveries

The elemental principles of electric induction were first discovered by Michael Faraday in the early part of the 19th century. Faraday considered acting at a distance thru empty space as an improbable explanation of magnetic attraction and repulsion. By intuitive and experimental method he determined that space is pervaded with lines of induction. These lines of induction were considered by Faraday to be the polarization of the contiguous particles of the aether. The lines, or polarizations, displayed the curious property of not taking the shortest path between the poles of an inductor, but followed curved paths thru space. This curvature of induction was unacceptable to Faraday's contemporaries and he was sharply criticised for this discovery.

In the course of his experimental researches Faraday found that when a magnetic field surrounding an electric conductor is altered so as to change the amount of induction surrounding this conductor, an electromotive force (E.M.F.) is produced along the conductor length in proportion to the quickness of the alteration. Algebraically it is

$ E = \frac {\varphi} {t} $ | Lines per second (Volts) |

That is, the E.M.F. of magnitude E is directly proportional to the total number of lines of induction $\varphi$ enclosing the conductor, and is inversely proportional to the length of time t required to produce or consume these lines of induction. In practical work the E.M.F. is known as voltage. This discovery marks the beginning of our knowledge of transformer theory, and is called the LAW OF ELECTRO-MAGNETIC INDUCTION. Faraday also the existence of another form of lines of induction distinct from the magnetic form. These lines appear around what are called "electo-static charges", and were given the name DIELECTRIC lines of induction. This field of induction is complimentary to the magnetic field of induction.

The experimental researches of Michael Faraday greatly impressed two of perhaps the most influential electrical scientists of the 19th century, J.C. Maxwell and J.J. Thompson. Maxwell sought to translate the experimental researches of Faraday into mathematical form in order to provide a more quanitive understanding of electric induction. Maxwell discovered a fundamental law complimentary to the law of electromagnetic induction, this being the LAW OF DIELECTRIC INDUCTION, or what is often called displacement current. Algebraically it is,

$ I = \frac {\psi} {t} $ | Lines per second (Amperes) |

That is, the current of magnitude I is directly proportional to the number of lines of dielectric induction $\psi$ terminating on the conductor surface, and inversely proportional to the length of time t required to produce or consume these lines of induction. In practical work this is known as the amperes.

The complimentary nature of magnetic and dielectric inductions led maxwell to discover the existance of a constant numerical proportion between the units of measure in magnetism and the units of measure in. dielectricity, this constant being numerically equal to the velocity of light squared. This famous discovery led Maxwell to the THEORY OF ELECTRO-MAGNETISM, this theory stating that electric waves are identical to waves of light, and thereby gave the notion that magnetism and dielectricity are inseparable.

The Maxwell theory of electro-magnetism dominated research into electric waves, particularly after the experiments of H. Hertz. Nikola Tesla comment on this matter:

Unfortunately this time has not yet arrived.

Prof. J.J. Thompson took a much less mathematical approach and more physical approach to Faraday's discoveries. Prof. Thompson considered Faraday's contiguous aether particles and lines of induction as CONCRETE PHYSICAL REALITIES, despite the shift in contemporary thought (cir 1900) back to what resembles action at a distance thru an aetherless, and now a spiritless, dead, space.

Thompson considered the propagation of magnetic inductions as distinctly INDEPENDENT of each other, rather than these two inductions propagating cojointly as given by the theory of electro-magnetism. He conceived the propagation of magnetic induction, because of the lines being transverse to the direction of propagation, as being retarded by the broadside drag they encounter in their motion thru the aether; Whereas the propagation of dielectric induction, because of these lines being directed along the path of propagation, are not retarded, but glide smoothly thru the aether with little or no opposition to motion.

Analogously, the propagation of a parachute thru the atmosphere is akin to magnetic propagation and hence the effect of drag, whereas the propagation of a missile thru the atmosphere is akin to dielectric propagation. Hence, dielectric induction propagates faster and thus arrives sooner than the magnetic induction, and thus sooner than the electro-magnetic energy. This concept is of prime importance for the understanding of the works of Dr. Nikola Tesla.

In his search for the contiguous particles of the aether Prof. Thompson discovered what is known as the electron. Much misunderstanding has developed with regard to the relation between this particle and dielectric induction. This has worked much harm into the proper understanding of Tesla's discoveries, and the understanding of electricity in general. To quote C.P. Steinmetz on this matter:

In 1854 Sir William Thompson, known also as Lord Kelvin, published the theory of electric oscillations. This theory demonstrated the interaction of the law of electro-magnetic induction with the law of dielectric induction, forming the lav; of electric induction in the dimension of time. Algebraically it is,

$ P = \frac {\phi} {t^2} = EI $ | Units per second squared (Watts) |

In practical work this is called the electric power, or wattage.

This theory, and its further development by Helmholtz, Heaviside, and Steinmetz,represents a fundamental principle behind nearly all of Tesla's apparatus.

Lord Kelvin felt that it was possible to establish compressional waves, such as sound waves, thru the luminiferous aether, these waves being a version of Maxwell's displacement current. This current, often called capacitor current, flows thru electric insulators, and even thru so called empty space. No conductors or electron flux is involved with this current. Kelvin indicated his feelings that these waves must propagate faster than the velocity of light. To quote Kelvin's description of the actions of the induction in the space between the plates of a capacitor fed by an alternator:

The velocity of dielectric propagation was experimentally verified by Prof. Wheatstone to be $\pi$/2 times faster than the velocity of light. Tesla also states this velocity in his writings on wave propagation.

In view of these scientific discoveries, and the fact that Oliver Heaviside developed a theory of faster than light electrons which was confirmed by Dr. Tesla, it is a wonder how the present notions of electro-magnetism and its limiting velocity as purported by Einstein an his followers have dominated electric theory. It is of particular interest to note that C.P. Steinmetz did not consider Hertzian waves as transmission of energy but as energy loss by the hysteresis of the aether.