### a) History of discoveries

The elemental principles of electric induction were first discovered by Michael Faraday in the early part of the 19th century. Faraday conŁsidered acting at a distance thru empty space as an improbable explanation of magnetic attraction and repulsion. By intuitive and experimental method he determined that space is pervaded with lines of induction. These lines of induction were considered by Faraday to be the polarization of the contiguous particles of the aether. The lines, or polarizations, displayed the curious property of not taking the shortest path between the poles of an inductor, but followed curved paths thru space. This curvature of induction was unacceptable to Faraday's contemporaries and he was sharpŁly criticised for this discovery.

In the course of his experimental researches Faraday found that when a magnetic field surrounding an electric conductor is altered so as to change the amount of induction surrounding this conductor, an electroŁmotive force (E.M.F.) is produced along the conductor length in proporŁtion to the quickness of the alteration. Algebraically it is

 $E = \frac {\varphi} {t}$ Lines per second (Volts)

That is, the E.M.F. of magnitude E is directly proportional to the total number of lines of induction $\varphi$ enclosing the conductor, and is inversely proportional to the length of time t required to produce or consume these lines of induction. In practical work the E.M.F. is known as voltage. This discovery marks the beginning of our knowledge of transformer theory, and is called the LAW OF ELECTRO-MAGNETIC INDUCTION. Faraday also the existence of another form of lines of induction distinct from the magŁnetic form. These lines appear around what are called "electo-static charges", and were given the name DIELECTRIC lines of induction. This field of induction is complimentary to the magnetic field of induction.

The experimental researches of Michael Faraday greatly impressed two of perhaps the most influential electrical scientists of the 19th century, J.C. Maxwell and J.J. Thompson. Maxwell sought to translate the experimental researches of Faraday into mathematical form in order to provide a more quanitive understanding of electric induction. Maxwell discovered a fundamental law complimentary to the law of electroŁmagnetic induction, this being the LAW OF DIELECTRIC INDUCTION, or what is often called displacement current. Algebraically it is,

 $I = \frac {\psi} {t}$ Lines per second (Amperes)

That is, the current of magnitude I is directly proportional to the number of lines of dielectric induction $\psi$ terminating on the conductor surface, and inversely proportional to the length of time t required to produce or consume these lines of induction. In practical work this is known as the amperes.

The complimentary nature of magnetic and dielectric inductions led maxwell to discover the existance of a constant numerical proportion between the units of measure in magnetism and the units of measure in. dielectricity, this constant being numerically equal to the velocity of light squared. This famous discovery led Maxwell to the THEORY OF ELECTRO-MAGNETISM, this theory stating that electric waves are identŁical to waves of light, and thereby gave the notion that magnetism and dielectricity are inseparable.

The Maxwell theory of electro-magnetism dominated research into electric waves, particularly after the experiments of H. Hertz. Nikola Tesla comment on this matter:

"I do not hesitate to say that in a short time it will be recognized as one of the most remarkable and inexplicable aberrations of the scientific mind which has ever been recorded in history."

Unfortunately this time has not yet arrived.

Prof. J.J. Thompson took a much less mathematical approach and more physical approach to Faraday's discoveries. Prof. Thompson considered Faraday's contiguous aether particles and lines of induction as CONCRETE PHYSICAL REALITIES, despite the shift in contemporary thought (cir 1900) back to what resembles action at a distance thru an aetherless, and now a spiritless, dead, space.

Thompson considered the propagation of magnetic inductions as disŁtinctly INDEPENDENT of each other, rather than these two inductions propagating cojointly as given by the theory of electro-magnetism. He conceived the propagation of magnetic induction, because of the lines being transverse to the direction of propagation, as being retarded by the broadside drag they encounter in their motion thru the aether; Whereas the propagation of dielectric induction, because of these lines being directed along the path of propagation, are not retarded, but glide smoothly thru the aether with little or no opposition to motion.

Analogously, the propagation of a parachute thru the atmosphere is akin to magnetic propagation and hence the effect of drag, whereas the propŁagation of a missile thru the atmosphere is akin to dielectric propagation. Hence, dielectric induction propagates faster and thus arrives sooner than the magnetic induction, and thus sooner than the electro-magnetic energy. This concept is of prime importance for the understanding of the works of Dr. Nikola Tesla.

In his search for the contiguous particles of the aether Prof. Thompson discovered what is known as the electron. Much misunderstanding has developed with regard to the relation between this particle and dielecŁtric induction. This has worked much harm into the proper understanding of Tesla's discoveries, and the understanding of electricity in general. To quote C.P. Steinmetz on this matter:

"Unfortunately, to a large extent in dealing with the dielectric fields the prehistoric conception of the electro-static charge on the conductor still exists, and by its use desŁtroys the analogy between the two components of the electric field, the magnetic and the dielectric, and makes the consideration of dielectric fields unnecessarily complicated.
There obviously is no more sense in thinking of the displacement current as current which charges the conductor with a quantity of electŁricity, than there is of speaking of the E.M.F. of magnetic induction as charging the conductor with a quantity of magnetism. But while the latter conception, together with the notion of a quantity of magnetism, etc.. has vanished since Faraday's representation of the magnetic field by the lines of magnetic force, the terminology of electro-statics of many textbooks still speaks of electric charges on the conductor, and the energy stored by them, without considering that the dielectric energy is not on the surface of the conductor, but in the space outside of the conductor, just as the magnetic energy".

In 1854 Sir William Thompson, known also as Lord Kelvin, published the theory of electric oscillations. This theory demonstrated the interŁaction of the law of electro-magnetic induction with the law of dielectric induction, forming the lav; of electric induction in the dimension of time. Algebraically it is,

 $P = \frac {\phi} {t^2} = EI$ Units per second squared (Watts)

In practical work this is called the electric power, or wattage.

This theory, and its further development by Helmholtz, Heaviside, and Steinmetz,represents a fundamental principle behind nearly all of Tesla's apparatus.

Lord Kelvin felt that it was possible to establish compressional waves, such as sound waves, thru the luminiferous aether, these waves being a version of Maxwell's displacement current. This current, often called capacitor current, flows thru electric insulators, and even thru so called empty space. No conductors or electron flux is involved with this current. Kelvin indicated his feelings that these waves must propŁagate faster than the velocity of light. To quote Kelvin's description of the actions of the induction in the space between the plates of a capacitor fed by an alternator:

"Now does any one believe that, if the revolution were made fast enough, the electro-static law of force, pure and simple, would apply to the air at different distances from each plate? Everyone believes that if the process can be conducted fast enough, several million times, or millions of millions times per second, we should have large deviations from the electro-static law in the distribution of electric force through the air in the neighborhood. It seems absolutely certain that such an action as that going on would give rise to electrical waves. Now, it does seem to me probable that these electrical waves are condenŁsational waves in the luminiferous aether; and probably it would be that the propagation of these waves would be enormously faster than the propagation of ordinary light waves."

The velocity of dielectric propagation was experimentally verified by Prof. Wheatstone to be $\pi$/2 times faster than the velocity of light. Tesla also states this velocity in his writings on wave propagation.

In view of these scientific discoveries, and the fact that Oliver Heaviside developed a theory of faster than light electrons which was confirmed by Dr. Tesla, it is a wonder how the present notions of electro-magnetism and its limiting velocity as purported by Einstein an his folloŁwers have dominated electric theory. It is of particular interest to note that C.P. Steinmetz did not consider Hertzian waves as transmission of energy but as energy loss by the hysteresis of the aether.