Links And References

List of sources, links and other reference material.

Ernst Alexanderson

Edwin D. Babbitt

Loyal Vivan Bewley (Electrical Engineer)

L. F. Blume

Abstract: Mathematical analysis is made of a rectangular wave impinging upon a transformer winding and quantitative values deduced of the resulting internal voltage stresses in terms of transformer constants. It is shown that the conclusions also apply in part to abrupt impulses and approximate idea is given of the reaction of a transformer to high frequencies. The difference between operating transformer with isolated and grounded neutral is shown. Energy losses are not considered in the mathematics although the manner in which the results are affected is pointed out. Finally, theoretical results are compared with impulse and high-frequency tests made in the laboratory.

Gustave Le Bon

Ferninand Cap

David Hatcher Childress

Eric Dollard

Michael Faraday (Electrical Engineer/Physicist)

Oliver Heaviside(Electrical Engineer)

Arthur E. Kennelly (Electrical Engineer)

Two other important texts are:

  • Vector Power in A.C. Circuits
  • Impedance, Angular Velocities & Frequencies of Oscillating Currents

Hermann von Helmholtz

William Lyne

Alexander MacFarlane (Mathematician)

Another good reference "The Imaginary of Algebra" can be found in Principals of the Algebra of Physics starting at pg 68.

Leonid Isaakovich Mandelstam (Electrical Engineer)

James Clerk Maxwell (Theoretical Physicist/Mathematician)

Nicholas Minorsky

Walter Russell

Rudolf Steiner (philosopher, social reformer, architect and esotericist.)

Charles Proteus Steinmetz (Mathematician/Electrical Engineer)

Nikola Tesla

Interesting sites on Nikola Tesla:

J. J. Thomson

Sir Charles Wheatstone

Chihiro Hayashi

  • Nonlinear Oscillations in Physical Systems

Jacob Millman

  • Pulse Digital and Switching Waveforms

Bernard Chih-Hsun Yen

Various links and resources


E2V Technologies

"The hydrogen thyratron is a high peak power electrical switch which uses hydrogen gas as the switching medium. The switching action is achieved by a transfer from the insulating properties of neutral gas to the conducting properties of ionised gas. Exploiting the basic principles of gas discharge physics, the hydrogen thyratron is designed to withstand a high voltage in the ‘off’ state, to trigger at a precisely defined time, to pass high peak current pulses in the ‘on’ state and to recover rapidly to the ‘off’ state to allow high repetition rate operation. [...] The process of switching in a hydrogen thyratron can be broken down into four phases. These are voltage hold-off, commutation, conduction and recovery. [...] Thyratrons are designed to withstand a high voltage on the anode and to trigger with a low voltage on the grid. Voltage breakdown in any gas-filled gap is initiated by free charges (electrons and ions) crossing the gap under the influence of an electric field. If sufficient energy is available, gas molecules are ionised producing more free charges. The positive ions are accelerated towards the lower potential electrode and cause the release of secondary electrons. Under the right circumstances, the processes become self-sustaining and voltage breakdown occurs. The breakdown behaviour is described by Paschen’s law, where the breakdown voltage V of an electrode/gas system is a function of the product of pressure p, and electrode separation d. The graph of this relation is of the form shown in Figure 3 and the breakdown voltage has a minimum at the pd value, designated pdmin. The breakdown voltage rises on either side of pdmin and it is thus possible to find two values of pd which give the same breakdown voltage. For example, thyratrons operate on the low pd or left-hand side of the curve. Spark gaps operate on the high pd or right-hand side of the curve. "



Also see the Patents directory.


1. Introduction to Dielectric & Magnetic Discharges in Electrical Windings, B.S.R.A. No TE-2, 1982

2. Electric Discharges, Waves, and Impulses. Chapter II, by Charles P. Steinmetz, McGraw Hill, N.Y. 1914, 2nd Ed.

3. Symbolic Representation of the Generalized Electric Wave, by Eric Dollard, B.S.R.A. No TE-4, 1985.

4. Symbolic Representation of Alternating Electric Waves, by Eric Dollard, B.S.R.A. No TE-3, 1985.

5. Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena, Chpt.V, by C.P. Steinmetz, McGraw Hill N.Y. 1900, Third Edition

6. The Imaginary of Algebra, pages 33-35, by Alex McFarlane, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vol XLI (1891-1894)

7. The Principles of the Algebra of Physics, A.McFarlane, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vol XL (1891-1894) page 77.

8. Condensed Intro to Tesla Transformers, by Eric Dollard, B.S.R.A. 1986.

9. Theory of Wireless Power, By Eric Dollard, B.S.R.A. 1986.

10. Electromagnetic Theory, Oliver Heavyside, Chelsea Press.

11. Theory and Calculation of Transient Waves and Electric Oscillations, "Transients in Time & Space." C.P. Steinmetz, McGraw Hill, 1910 Third Edition.

12. Impedance, Angular Velocities & Frequencies of Oscillating Currents, by A.E. Kennelly, Institute of Radio Engineers, Nov. 3, 1913.

13. Vector Power in A.C. Circuits, A.E. Kennelly, Proc. A.I.E.E., June 29, 1910.